How to Introduce New Words
Pointing is probably the technique of choice when teaching real beginners. The teacher shows students illustrations or flashcards and points to the items they wish to teach. You can also use posters, Power Point presentations, or different types of computer software where illustrations are presented in electronic format. Google Images is a real life-saver! Pointing works best with nouns which include food, clothes, animals, professions, sports, classroom objects, office supplies, etc… but also colors, actions, and any adjective that can be clearly illustrated (like facial expressions, for example to teach feelings). The main advantage of pointing is that words may be introduced in blocks, and you may easily and effectively introduce several in one lesson. Works well with visual students.
This technique can be used with students of all levels and works best with concepts and ideas that can't be easily seen or touched, like abstracts, or anything that is not a real object. There are different ways to use substitution:
Synonyms – You substitute one word students are familiar with for another new one.
When you call someone, do you sometimes have to wait? You have to hold.
Do trains usually run on time? They are on schedule.
Antonyms – You substitute one word they are familiar with for its opposite.
Is a Ferrari a cheap car?(No) It’s an expensive car.
Substitution works very well with phrasal verbs, which usually have a one-word equivalent: Do you put off going to the dentist? You postpone seeing your dentist.
However, you should be careful when using words that are not exact synonyms or antonyms. Remember to imply that the connotation may be different in some cases.
- Synonyms – You substitute one word students are familiar with for another new one.
This technique is similar to substitution, but in this case, you set a scene or situation and then substitute it with a new word or phrase, thus effectively naming the scene.
- Do you usually eat pancakes, eggs, and bacon for breakfast? (No) So, you have a light breakfast.
- The hotel accepted too many reservations. The hotel is overbooked.
- The steak I ordered last night was not cooked enough. It was undercooked/rare/bloody.
Miming and Total Physical Response
This technique works great with kinesthetic learners, namely those who learn best by moving their bodies. Most teachers believe that mining works best with children, particularly when it comes to exaggerating emotions and facial expressions, but adults may also enjoy miming.
Most teachers are also aware of the advantages of Total Physical Response in the ESL classroom. TPR works well with parts of the body (I’m touching my nose! Touch your nose!), actions (I’m walking to the door), and the imperative mood or commands (Sit down! Stand up!)
The main advantage in miming and TPR is that you can get students physically engaged in the lesson. It gets them out of their seats and shakes things up. So make sure you maximize opportunities to get them moving!
The use of realia, or real-life objects in the ESL classroom can make a huge difference in student learning. It engages them and motivates them to learn. It’s fun and sets a more natural learning environment. Some realia you may use to introduce new vocabulary includes:
- Tea sets, dishes, and utensils
- Toy planes, trains, cars, animals, furniture, etc…
- Family photos
- Holiday items (pumpkin, Easter eggs, Halloween or Christmas decorations)
- Plastic fruits and vegetables
There are lots of ways in which you can effectively introduce new vocabulary and not have to resort to translation.